Infant and Maternal Health | Boltons Health Matters
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Infant and Maternal Health

This is the JSNA chapter on early years and maternal health. Theme chapters summarises implications for commissioning, who is at risk and why, the level of need in the population, service provision and use, unmet needs, what works in terms of evidence, community views and priorities, any related equality impact assessments, unmet service needs/gaps and recommendations for further needs assessment work. 

This guideline updates and replaces NICE guideline CG55 (published September 2007). It offers evidence-based advice on the care of women and their babies during labour and immediately after the birth. It covers healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies entering labour at low risk of developing intrapartum complications. New recommendations have been added in a number of areas, including choosing place of birth, care during the latent first stage of labour, transfer of care, fetal assessment and monitoring during labour (particularly cardiotocography compared with intermittent auscultation) and management of the third stage of labour. This resource can be accessed by clicking here:

This clinical guideline offers evidence-based advice on the care of women and their babies in the first 6–8 weeks after birth. Recommendations on co-sleeping and sudden infant death syndrome were updated in 2014 and cover the first year of an infant's life. This resource can be accessed by clicking here:

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here:

The associated evidence summary is: Local action on health inequalities: Good quality parenting programmes and the home to school transition


  1. In 2013, 52% of all children reached a ‘good level of development’ at age five according to the Department for Education, compared to 36% of children who were eligible for free school meals.
  2. The quality of parenting affects children’s long-term physical, emotional, social and educational outcomes and therefore differences in parenting between social groups have implications for health inequalities.
  3. Positive, warm parenting, with firm boundaries and routines, supports social and emotional development and reduces behavioural problems.
  4. There is evidence that a range of parenting programmes designed for families with children of a particular age are effective.
  5. To reduce health inequalities, commissioning of parenting programmes should be part of a wider local system of measures to support parents. Good financial and emotional resources make it easier for parents to take good parenting actions.

A map that shows the population estimates (percentage) of births under 2.5kg by ward in Bolton.

A map that shows the population estimates (percentage) for the fertility rates for Bolton by ward from 2006-2010.

The Environment and Health Atlas for England and Wales is an independent publication produced by the Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), an academic unit funded by the Medical Research Council and Public Health England. The aims of the atlas are:

  • To provide baseline information for policy makers and the public on geographic patterns of environmental agents and disease.
  • To help in development of hypotheses to understand and explain variability in disease risk that may relate to the environment, lifestyle factors and/or location.
  • Following on from this, to help in development of research to investigate potential causal relationships between environment and health factors – where either evidence or lack of evidence for an effect provides important information to inform public health and policy.

The atlas provides maps of the geographical variations for a range of health conditions and environmental agents at a small-area scale (census wards). The maps have been developed as a resource for those working in public health and public health policy and for the general public to better understand the geographic distribution of environmental factors and disease.

You can access this resource by clicking here:

Please note - this resource may not work on out of date browsers such as Internet Explorer 7. For best results - it is recomended to use Chrome or Firefox.

This is a collection of evidence that is supplemental and supportive to the JSNA Chapter: Early Years and Maternal Health. It brings together all the most relevant intelligence, research and evidence to ensure best practice in decision making.

Please use the contents options to navigate the document, and then click on the title of any document that is of relevance.

The guideline applies to all pregnant women with complex social factors and contains a number of recommendations on standards of care for this population as a whole. However, four groups of women were identified as exemplars:

  • women who misuse substances (alcohol and/or drugs)
  • women who are recent migrants, asylum seekers or refugees, or who have difficulty reading or speaking English
  • young women aged under 20
  • women who experience domestic abuse.

Because there are differences in the barriers to care and particular needs of these four groups, specific recommendations have been made for each group. To view this guidance - please click here:

NICE formal guidance on maternal and child nutrition.

Follow the link for full details:

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