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Income and Employment

Pre 2014 - The percentage of young people who were looked after on 1 April in their 17th year (aged 16), who were engaged in education, training or employment at the age of 19. Post 2014 - The percentage of children now aged 19, 20 and 21 who were looked after for a total of at least 13 weeks after their 14th birthday including some time after their 16th birthday, who were engaged in education, training or employment.

Values reported are an average of the percentage for November, December and January - thus the 2014/15 figure is the average of snapshots taken in November 2015, December 2015 and January 2016

Headlines

  • Acorn is a segmentation tool that groups households based on where they live, and helps to understand the different types of communities that make up a larger population and their likely needs, behaviours and opinions relating to a wide range of topics.
  • Acorn is based in where people live, but many people spend a substantial amount of time away from home, at work. Workplace Acorn describes the people who work in each local area. Their Acorn type is determined using their home address, and where people work is estimated from 2011 census data. Ward worker populations are very variable, so Workplace Zones can be used to build up new geographies.
  • Bolton’s workforce population is fairly evenly split: just over a quarter of workers belong to each of ‘4 Financially stretched’ and ‘3 Comfortable communities’ while just under a quarter belong to each of ‘5 Urban adversity’ and ‘1 Affluent achievers’.
  • Compared with residents, the Bolton workforce contains relatively higher proportions of the more affluent Acorn categories and lower proportions of the more deprived Acorn categories. This results in a more even distribution of workers across wards and more homogenous makeup of ward workers than seen in the resident population. Although the differences are smaller, the wards with the highest proportion of affluent residents still tended to be those with higher proportions of affluent workers and relatively fewer deprived workers.
  • The wards containing Bolton town centre (Great Lever, Halliwell and Crompton) are among the most deprived in terms of residents, but when the workforce is considered the wards have a profile much more typical of Bolton as a whole.
  • The insights gained from Acorn data are particularly useful when combined with locally collected data. Acorn data could be used to add value particularly by providing detail about people’s lifestyle choices in wider areas of their life. Workplace Acorn could be used to target employers where workers are likely to be made up of particular Acorn types, groups and categories. It could also be used to guide promotion of products and services which are aimed at the worker population rather than the resident population, particularly where there are large differences between the two.

These are a collection of examples of best practice as undertaken by the National Conversation on Health Inequalities (NCHI) that covered a wide spectrum of public health activity. Please click on the links below to go to the case studies:

 

 

These documents outline the effects of working conditions on public health and set out information about how local public health partnerships can influence job creation.

They can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1iNZ2Vb 

This resource is part of the ‘Local Action on Health Inequalities’ Collection that can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1NvW6YD

This guideline makes recommendations on improving the health and wellbeing of employees, with a particular focus on organisational culture and context, and the role of line managers.

The aim is to:

  • promote leadership that supports the health and wellbeing of employees
  • help line managers to achieve this
  • explore the positive and negative effect an organisation’s culture can have on people’s health and wellbeing
  • provide a business case and economic modelling for strengthening the role of line managers in ensuring the health and wellbeing of employees.

The guideline is for employers, senior leadership and managers (including line managers) and employees. It will also be of interest to those working in human resources, learning and development teams, professional trainers and educators, occupational health, health and safety, trade unions and professional bodies. In addition, it may be of interest to other members of the public.

This can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1dfKDxJ

This resource describes how public health in a number of councils has started to use the opportunities of a local government setting to improve health and wellbeing.

The case studies were chosen because they show a range of ways in which public health in councils is approaching working with local business. They include councils spread across England, covering both rural and urban environments and with varying levels of deprivation and affluence. The LGA looks forward to seeing many more such examples of local energy and innovation in the months and years to come, and seeing the measurable impact it will have. The challenge for us all is not just to identify good practice, but to champion and share it.

Case studies include:

  • Creating a healthier workplace
  • Creating a less obeseogenic enviornment
  • Improving child vaccination rates
  • Working with early year providers

You can download the resource by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1zSrjOh

This resource describes how public health in a number of councils has started to use the opportunities of a local government setting to improve health and wellbeing.

The case studies were chosen because they show a range of ways in which public health in councils is approaching working with local business. They include councils spread across England, covering both rural and urban environments and with varying levels of deprivation and affluence. The LGA looks forward to seeing many more such examples of local energy and innovation in the months and years to come, and seeing the measurable impact it will have. The challenge for us all is not just to identify good practice, but to champion and share it.

Case studies include:

  • Creating a healthier workplace
  • Creating a less obeseogenic enviornment
  • Improving child vaccination rates
  • Working with early year providers

You can download the resource by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1zSrjOh

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/ZWsNtX

The associated evidence summary is: Local action on health inequalities: Reducing the number of young people not in employment, education or training (NEET)

Summary
1. Spending time not in employment, education or training (NEET) has been shown to have a detrimental effect on physical and mental health. This effect is greater when time spent NEET is at a younger age or lasts for longer.
2. The link between time spent NEET and poor health is partly due to an increased likelihood of unemployment, low wages, or low quality work later on in life. Being NEET can also have an impact on unhealthy behaviours and involvement in crime.
3. These negative health effects do not occur equally across the population, as the chance of being NEET is affected by area deprivation, socio-economic position, parental factors (such as employment, education, or attitudes), growing up in care, prior academic achievement and school experiences. Being NEET therefore occurs disproportionately among those already experiencing other sources of disadvantage.
4. Because the chances of becoming NEET follow a social gradient, reducing the proportion of people NEET could help to reduce health inequalities.
5. Local authorities have specific responsibilities and accountabilities for those who are NEET, particularly those aged 16-18. The raising of the participation age gives local authorities new roles, opportunities and challenges in supporting young people who are NEET.
6. Evidence of what works to reduce the proportion of young people NEET suggests that a successful strategy requires early intervention, tackling the barriers that young people face when attempting to move into education or employment. It also requires working across organisational and geographical boundaries and the involvement of local employers.
7. Tracking people, monitoring progress and programme evaluation can also help to drive improvements. Best practice from other successful programmes should be borne in mind when commissioning new services. For example, it is important that courses are accredited, not like school and developed in partnership with young people.

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1tnWbWY

The associated evidence summary is: Local action on health inequalities: Health inequalities and the living wage

Summary
1. Evidence shows that insufficient income is associated with worse outcomes across virtually all domains of health, including long-term health and life expectancy.
2. The negative health effects of living on a low income can be caused by material factors (the inability to afford the items necessary for a healthy life) and/or psychosocial factors (such as ‘status anxiety’).
3. Adopting the living wage has been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing among employees and increase life expectancy.
4. Local authorities can lead by example as a major employer by paying a living wage to all directly employed staff and, where appropriate, contracted staff. The rationale and benefits of the living wage will need to be explained clearly to partners.
5. Innovative approaches to implementing the living wage in procurement, including applying the Social Value Act 2012 might also be used.

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