Behaviour and Risk Factors | Boltons Health Matters
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Behaviour and Risk Factors

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1tnWbWY

The associated evidence summary is: Local action on health inequalities: Health inequalities and the living wage

Summary
1. Evidence shows that insufficient income is associated with worse outcomes across virtually all domains of health, including long-term health and life expectancy.
2. The negative health effects of living on a low income can be caused by material factors (the inability to afford the items necessary for a healthy life) and/or psychosocial factors (such as ‘status anxiety’).
3. Adopting the living wage has been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing among employees and increase life expectancy.
4. Local authorities can lead by example as a major employer by paying a living wage to all directly employed staff and, where appropriate, contracted staff. The rationale and benefits of the living wage will need to be explained clearly to partners.
5. Innovative approaches to implementing the living wage in procurement, including applying the Social Value Act 2012 might also be used.

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1wrW2i6

The associated evidence summary is:Local action on health inequalities: Increasing employment opportunities and improving workplace health

Summary
1. Being in good work protects health and wellbeing. Work is an important source of income needed for a healthy life and provides social opportunities that are good for health and wellbeing.
2. Poor working conditions contribute to early retirement. Older people in more disadvantaged social positions are more likely to have difficulty finding and keeping a job. Both issues contribute to health inequalities.
3. A range of employer approaches are likely to increase employment opportunities and retention among older people including measures to promote fair recruitment, equal training opportunities, flexible working, improvements to the physical and psychosocial work environment, phased retirement and succession planning.
4. For employers, the benefits of employing and retaining older workers can include reduced turnover and recruitment costs, positive employee feedback, retention of skills and experience and transfer of knowledge.

 

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1nj6dps

The associated evidence summary is:Local action on health inequalities: Increasing employment opportunities and improving workplace health

Summary
1. Disabled people and those with long-term health conditions have far lower employment rates than other groups. Disability is more common among people in more disadvantaged socio-economic positions.
2. Differences between the health and employment prospects of people with a long-term health condition or disability are a source of health inequalities. Being out of work can contribute to further deterioration in health among people with a long-term condition or disability.
3. Local authorities can promote local employer awareness of national employment programmes, such as Access to Work, and guidance and legislation such as the Equality Act 2010. There are also examples of good local employment support programmes.
4. Evidence suggests that personalised, tailored support is effective in helping people with disabilities or long-term conditions into work. There is good evidence that individual placement and support programmes are effective for out of work people with severe mental health problems. A ‘health-first’ approaches that aims to improve health to increase the employability of incapacity benefit claimants is showing early promise.
5. Local authorities may be able to influence provision of local employment services by ensuring that employment service providers are members of health and wellbeing boards.

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1sGnqKi

The associated evidence summary is:Local action on health inequalities: Increasing employment opportunities and improving workplace health

Summary
1. There is a social gradient in working conditions. People in more disadvantaged socioeconomic positions are more likely to experience poor working conditions, which increases their risks of ill-health and contributes to health inequalities.
2. There is clear evidence that local authorities can work with employers to promote good quality work with many examples of good practice. Local authorities have a number of levers including provision of advice, enforcement of employer legal obligations, partnership working, incentivisation and accreditation.
3. Using contractual levers of procurement such as the Social Value Act 2012 also offer a means of promoting good quality work. Improving the working conditions and health of outsourced and contracted staff may help to reduce health inequalities.
4. Engaging organisations with high numbers of employees on more junior job grades, working long or irregular hours or on non-permanent contracts is likely to be the most fruitful way of securing positive working conditions for relatively large proportions of the most disadvantaged workers in local labour markets.

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1qiM6n6

The associated evidence summary is:Local action on health inequalities: Increasing employment opportunities and improving workplace health

Summary
1. Both the physical and psychosocial work environments can affect health. This briefing focuses on psychosocial conditions, which is about organisational culture.
2. The way work is organised and the work climate are contributory factors in the social gradient in health. Lower paid workers with fewer skills or qualifications are more likely to experience poor psychosocial working conditions and worse health.
3. Measures to improve the quality of work that focus more attention on workers in semiskilled and unskilled manual occupational groups may help to reduce inequalities in workrelated health problems.
4. There is evidence that psychosocial working conditions can be improved in a variety of ways, for example, by increasing employee control over their work and participation in decision-making, and with flexible working practices.
5. Effective leadership and line management training can also contribute to a better psychosocial work environment. Interventions to reduce stress and improve mental health at work, leading causes of sickness absence, will typically be important for improving workplace health.
6. Opportunities to participate in any schemes should be open to all employees and all groups should be considered during the design of schemes, especially those in semiskilled and unskilled manual jobs and temporary or fixed term workers.

This briefing was commissioned by PHE and written by the Institute of Health Equity. It is a summary of a more detailed evidence review on the same topic and is intended primarily for directors of public health, public health teams and local authorities. This briefing and accompanying evidence reviews are part of a series commissioned by PHE to describe and demonstrate effective, practical local action on a range of social determinants of health.

You can view the briefing by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1CcHHYP

The associated evidence summary is: Local action on health inequalities: Building children and young people’s resilience in schools

Summary
1. Resilience is the capacity to bounce back from adversity. Protective factors increase resilience, whereas risk factors increase vulnerability. Resilient individuals, families and communities are more able to deal with difficulties and adversities than those with less resilience.
2. Those who are resilient do well despite adversity, although it does not imply that those who are resilient are unharmed – they often have poorer outcomes than those who have low-risk background but less resilience. This applies to health outcomes and affects success in a range of areas of life across the life course. Evidence shows that resilience could contribute to healthy behaviours, higher qualifications and skills, better employment, better mental well-being, and a quicker or more successful recovery from illness.
3. Resilience is not an innate feature of some people’s personalities. Resilience and adversity are distributed unequally across the population, and are related to broader socioeconomic inequalities which have common causes – the inequities in power, money and resources that shape the conditions in which people live and their opportunities, experiences and relationships.
4. Those who face the most adversity are least likely to have the resources necessary to build resilience. This ‘double burden’ means that inequalities in resilience are likely to contribute to health inequalities.
5. Schools have a key opportunity to build resilience among children and young people, and there is a range of ways in which local authorities can support and encourage schools to take action.
6. Actions to increase resilience can be targeted at different levels - they can aim to increase achievements of pupils; to support them through transitions and encourage healthy behaviours; to promote better interpersonal relationships between people – particularly parents or carers and children; and to create more supportive, cohesive schools that support both pupils and the wider community.

This evidence review/briefing was commissioned by Public Health England and researched, analysed and written by the UCL Institute of Health Equity. These papers show evidence for interventions on social issues that lead to poor health, including ways to deal with health inequalities. You can use them to get practical tips for dealing with these issues. They also show examples from local areas showing interventions that have been used to improve health. The series includes eight evidence reviews and 14 short briefing papers.

The documents can be used by:

  • local authority professionals whose work has implications for health and wellbeing, such as children’s services and planning services
  • local authorities - particularly directors of public health and their teams - to build health and wellbeing strategies and Joint Strategic Needs Assessments
  • public health teams making a case for action on health inequalities
  • health and wellbeing boards making local public health strategies, including those covering service areas with health implications such as Local Plans and Growth Plans

This evidence summary can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1nj0SP9

The full list of resources can be viewed on this page: http://bit.ly/YiMHgX

This paper builds on that position and provides a summary of evidence on the effects of unemployment and poor working conditions on health and the unequal distribution of these effects. It then outlines the potential actions that can be taken in local areas around four specific topics:

• workplace interventions to improve health and wellbeing
•work with local employers to encourage, incentivise and enforce good quality work
•interventions to increase employment opportunities and retention for people with a long- term health condition or disability
•interventions to increase employment opportunities and retention for older people

This evidence review was commissioned by Public Health England and researched, analysed and written by the UCL Institute of Health Equity. These papers show evidence for interventions on social issues that lead to poor health, including ways to deal with health inequalities. You can use them to get practical tips for dealing with these issues. They also show examples from local areas showing interventions that have been used to improve health. The series includes eight evidence reviews and 14 short briefing papers.

The documents can be used by:

  • local authority professionals whose work has implications for health and wellbeing, such as children’s services and planning services
  • local authorities - particularly directors of public health and their teams - to build health and wellbeing strategies and Joint Strategic Needs Assessments
  • public health teams making a case for action on health inequalities
  • health and wellbeing boards making local public health strategies, including those covering service areas with health implications such as Local Plans and Growth Plans

This evidence summary can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1sw7tpR

The full list of resources can be viewed on this page: http://bit.ly/YiMHgX

This paper provides a summary of evidence on the health impacts of living on a low income. It assesses the evidence around how the living wage addresses low incomes, health and health inequalities.

This evidence review was commissioned by Public Health England and researched, analysed and written by the UCL Institute of Health Equity. These papers show evidence for interventions on social issues that lead to poor health, including ways to deal with health inequalities. You can use them to get practical tips for dealing with these issues. They also show examples from local areas showing interventions that have been used to improve health. The series includes eight evidence reviews and 14 short briefing papers.

The documents can be used by:

  • local authority professionals whose work has implications for health and wellbeing, such as children’s services and planning services
  • local authorities - particularly directors of public health and their teams - to build health and wellbeing strategies and Joint Strategic Needs Assessments
  • public health teams making a case for action on health inequalities
  • health and wellbeing boards making local public health strategies, including those covering service areas with health implications such as Local Plans and Growth Plans

This evidence summary can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1o7qoaC

The full list of resources can be viewed on this page: http://bit.ly/YiMHgX

This paper synthesises key literature, advice from experts and previous Institute of Health Equity work, to provide a summary of the importance of parenting and the transition between home and school, along with some examples of interventions that could reduce inequalities.

This evidence review was commissioned by Public Health England and researched, analysed and written by the UCL Institute of Health Equity. These papers show evidence for interventions on social issues that lead to poor health, including ways to deal with health inequalities. You can use them to get practical tips for dealing with these issues. They also show examples from local areas showing interventions that have been used to improve health. The series includes eight evidence reviews and 14 short briefing papers.

The documents can be used by:

  • local authority professionals whose work has implications for health and wellbeing, such as children’s services and planning services
  • local authorities - particularly directors of public health and their teams - to build health and wellbeing strategies and Joint Strategic Needs Assessments
  • public health teams making a case for action on health inequalities
  • health and wellbeing boards making local public health strategies, including those covering service areas with health implications such as Local Plans and Growth Plans

This evidence summary can be accessed by clicking here: http://bit.ly/1EO8Vc4

The full list of resources can be viewed on this page: http://bit.ly/YiMHgX

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